Image credit: Francisco Olivos

Why do Girls Shoot Higher Than Boys?

Linking Structural Opportunities and Gender Ideology in the Reversed Gender Gap pf Educational Expectations.

Image credit: Francisco Olivos

Why do Girls Shoot Higher Than Boys?

Linking Structural Opportunities and Gender Ideology in the Reversed Gender Gap pf Educational Expectations.

Abstract

Cross-national studies have shown consistently that girls have higher educational expectations than boys. The literature has provided macro and micro level explanations for this phenomenon. Country-level indicators such as gender inequality and the rate of female enrollment in tertiary education have been significant predictors of higher educational expectations for girls than boys. On the other hand, psychosocial studies have found a significant mediation of gender attitudes on the formation of educational expectations for girls. However, the interaction of structural opportunities and individual gender ideology has not been addressed. By using data from the second wave of the International Civic and Citizenship Study 2016 (N= 86,803) of eighth and ninth graders from 22 countries, this study aims to understand why girls have higher expectations for completing college than boys, considering the interplay of micro and macro-level predictors. Overall, the results indicate that girls are more likely than boys to hold expectations for completing tertiary education (OR= 1.72). Mediation analysis suggests that an important proportion of this effect is mediated by individual gender attitudes (69%). Contrary to the literature, gender equality at country-level reduces the pro-girls gender gap. Moreover, the interaction between individual gender attitudes and structural conditions suggests that, even for highly equalitarian countries, individual attitudes against gender equity offset the effect of macro-level conditions.

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Location
Moscow, Russia
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Francisco Olivos
Research Assistant Professor

My research interests include cultural sociology, social inequality, sociology of education and computational social sciences.